Franco Regime Spanien: Diktatur unter Franco
Franquismus. Als Franquismus (span. franquismo [fɾaŋˈkismo], dt. auch. Das französisch-spanische Spanien, in Spanien als französischsprachige Diktatur bekannt, offiziell als spanischer Staat bekannt, ist die Zeit der spanischen Geschichte zwischen und , als Francisco Franco Spanien als Diktator mit dem Titel. wurde Adolfo Suárez neuer Ministerpräsident Spaniens und beendete das diktatoriale Regime Francos endgültig. Die Aufarbeitung der fast jährigen Herrschaft. Das Franco Regime. Francisco Franco Bahmonde () Der Spanische Bürgerkrieg endete mit dem Sieg Francos und der Einrichtung eines autoritären. Franco-Regime: Eine gemütliche Diktatur. Dem Diktator Francisco Franco, hier mit Adolf Hitler im Oktober , diente der österreichische.
Das Franco Regime. Francisco Franco Bahmonde () Der Spanische Bürgerkrieg endete mit dem Sieg Francos und der Einrichtung eines autoritären. Weiß man, wie viele Juden aufgrund der Mithilfe des Franco-Regimes nach Deutschland ausgeliefert wurden und dort ums Leben kamen? Nein. Franquismus. Als Franquismus (span. franquismo [fɾaŋˈkismo], dt. auch. Franco also appeased the Carlists by exploiting something erfolg question Republicans' anti-clericalism in his propaganda, in particular concerning the " Martyrs of the war ". Christendom Press. Spanish neutrality during World War II was appreciated and publicly acknowledged by leading fronten zwei spion zwischen Allied statesmen. Hierbei stream german film sich das Opus zunächst auf den Bankensektor, da die Frage der Finanzierung von Investitionen im Rahmen moderner Finanzprodukte für die Entwicklung der spanischen Industrie wesentlich war. Die Möglichkeit einer zivilrechtlichen Scheidung wurde abgeschafft.
Large numbers of those captured were returned to Spain or interned in Nazi concentration camps as stateless enemies. Between six and seven thousand exiles from Spain died in Mauthausen.
It has been estimated that more than , Spaniards died in the first years of the dictatorship from to as a result of political persecution, hunger and disease related to the conflict.
Spain's strong ties with the Axis resulted in its international ostracism in the early years following World War II as Spain was not a founding member of the United Nations and did not become a member until Independent political parties and trade unions were banned throughout the duration of the dictatorship.
On 26 July , Spain was declared a kingdom, but no monarch was designated until in Franco established Juan Carlos of Bourbon as his official heir-apparent.
Franco was to be succeeded by Luis Carrero Blanco as Prime Minister with the intention of continuing the Francoist regime, but those hopes ended with his assassination by the Basque separatist group ETA.
He initiated the country's subsequent transition to democracy , ending with Spain becoming a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament and autonomous devolved governments.
After Franco's victory in , the Falange was declared the sole legally sanctioned political party in Spain and it asserted itself as the main component of the National Movement.
In a state of emergency -like status, Franco ruled with, on paper, more power than any Spanish leader before or since.
He was not even required to consult his cabinet for most legislation. Payne , Franco had more day-to-day power than Adolf Hitler or Joseph Stalin possessed at the respective heights of their power.
Payne noted that Hitler and Stalin at least maintained rubber-stamp parliaments, while Franco dispensed with even that formality in the early years of his rule.
According to Payne, the lack of even a rubber-stamp parliament made Franco's government "the most purely arbitrary in the world.
The Organic Law made the government ultimately responsible for passing all laws,  while defining the Cortes as a purely advisory body elected by neither direct nor universal suffrage.
The Cortes had no power over government spending, and the government was not responsible to it; ministers were appointed and dismissed by Franco alone as the "Chief" of state and government.
The Ley del Referendum Nacional Law of the National Referendum , passed in approved for all "fundamental laws" to be approved by a popular referendum, in which only the heads of families could vote.
Local municipal councils were appointed similarly by heads of families and local corporations through local municipal elections while mayors were appointed by the government.
It was thus one of the most centralised countries in Europe and certainly the most centralised in Western Europe following the fall of the Portuguese Estado Novo in the Carnation Revolution.
The referendum law was used twice during Franco's rule—in , when a referendum revived the Spanish monarchy with Franco as de facto regent for life with sole right to appoint his successor; and in , another referendum was held to approve a new " organic law ", or constitution, supposedly limiting and clearly defining Franco's powers as well as formally creating the modern office of Prime Minister of Spain.
By delaying the issue of republic versus monarchy for his year dictatorship and by refusing to take up the throne himself in , Franco sought to antagonise neither the monarchical Carlists who preferred the restoration of a Bourbon nor the republican "old shirts" original Falangists.
In , Franco offered Otto von Habsburg the throne, but was refused and ultimately followed Otto's recommendation by selecting in the young Juan Carlos of Bourbon , son of Infante Juan, as his officially designated heir to the throne, shortly after his 30th birthday the minimum age required under the Law of Succession.
During the first year of peace, Franco dramatically reduced the size of the Spanish Army —from almost one million at the end of the Civil War to , in early , with most soldiers two-year conscripts.
In November , with the Allied landings in North Africa and the German occupation of France bringing hostilities closer than ever to Spain's border, Franco ordered a partial mobilization, bringing the army to over , men.
Spain attempted to retain control of the last remnants of its colonial empire throughout Franco's rule.
Despite this, Franco was forced to make some concessions. Only in , with the Green March and the military occupation, did Morocco take control of all of the former Spanish territories in the Sahara.
In , under United Nations pressure Franco granted Spain's colony of Equatorial Guinea its independence and the next year ceded the exclave of Ifni to Morocco.
Under Franco, Spain also pursued a campaign to gain sovereignty of the British overseas territory of Gibraltar and closed its border in The border would not be fully reopened until The consistent points in Francoism included above all authoritarianism , Spanish nationalism , national Catholicism , monarchism , militarism , national conservatism , anti-Masonry , anti-Catalanism , pan-Hispanism and anti-liberalism —some authors also include integralism.
At the helm were military leaders such as General Francisco Franco, who were conservatives in all essential respects. When the civil war ended, Franco was so deeply entrenched that the Falange stood no chance; in this strongly authoritarian regime, there was no room for political opposition.
The Falange became junior partners in the government and, as such, they had to accept responsibility for the regime's policy without being able to shape it substantially".
This party, often referred to as Falange, became the sole legal party during Franco's regime, but the term "party" was generally avoided, especially after World War II, when it was commonly referred to as the "National Movement" or just as "the Movement".
The main point of those scholars that tend to consider the Spanish State to be authoritarian rather than fascist is that the FET-JONS were relatively heterogeneous rather than being an ideological monolith.
The Spanish State was authoritarian: Non-government trade unions and all political opponents across the political spectrum were either suppressed or controlled by all means, including police repression.
Franco was also the focus of a personality cult , which taught that he had been sent by Divine Providence to save the country from chaos and poverty.
Members of the oppressed ranged from Catholic trade unions to communist and anarchist organisations to liberal democrats and Catalan or Basque separatists.
University students seeking democracy revolted in the late s and early s, which was repressed by the grises.
Like others at the time, Franco evinced a concern about a possible Masonic and Judaic conspiracy against his regime. Franco continued to personally sign all death warrants until just months before he died despite international campaigns requesting him to desist.
Franco's Spanish nationalism promoted a unitary national identity by repressing Spain's cultural diversity. Bullfighting and flamenco  were promoted as national traditions, while those traditions not considered Spanish were suppressed.
Franco's view of Spanish tradition was somewhat artificial and arbitrary: while some regional traditions were suppressed, Flamenco, an Andalusian tradition, was considered part of a larger, national identity.
All cultural activities were subject to censorship and many were forbidden entirely, often in an erratic manner.
This cultural policy relaxed over time, most notably in the late s and early s. Franco was reluctant to enact any form of administrative and legislative decentralisation and kept a fully centralised form of government with a similar administrative structure to that established by the House of Bourbon and General Miguel Primo de Rivera.
These structures were modelled after the centralised French state. As a result of this type of governance, government attention and initiatives were irregular and often depended more on the goodwill of government representatives than on regional needs.
Thus inequalities in schooling, health care or transport facilities among regions were patent: historically affluent regions like Madrid , Catalonia or the Basque Country fared much better than others such as Extremadura , Galicia or Andalusia.
Franco eliminated the autonomy granted by the Second Spanish Republic to the regions and abolished the centuries-old fiscal privileges and autonomy the fueros in two of the three Basque provinces: Guipuzcoa and Biscay , which were officially classified as "traitor regions".
The fueros were kept in the third Basque province, Alava , and also in Navarre , a former kingdom during the Middle Ages and the cradle of the Carlists, possibly due to the region's support during the Civil War.
Franco also used language politics in an attempt to establish national homogeneity. Despite Franco himself being Galician, the government revoked the official statute and recognition for the Basque , Galician and Catalan languages that the Republic had granted them for the first time in the history of Spain.
The former policy of promoting Spanish as the only official language of the state and education was resumed, even though millions of the country's citizens spoke other languages.
The legal usage of languages other than Spanish was forbidden: all government, notarial, legal and commercial documents were to be drawn up exclusively in Spanish and any written in other languages were deemed null and void.
The use of any other language was forbidden in schools, advertising, religious ceremonies and on road and shop signs.
Publications in other languages were generally forbidden, though citizens continued to use them privately.
During the late s, these policies became more lenient yet non-Castilian languages continued to be discouraged and did not receive official status or legal recognition.
Additionally, the popularisation of the compulsory national educational system and the development of modern mass media, both controlled by the state and exclusively in Spanish, reduced the competency of speakers of Basque, Catalan and Galician.
Although Franco himself was previously known for not being very devout,  his regime often used religion as a means to increase its popularity throughout the Catholic world, especially after the Second World War.
Franco himself was increasingly portrayed as a fervent Catholic and a staunch defender of Roman Catholicism, the declared state religion.
The regime favoured very conservative Roman Catholicism and it reversed the secularisation process that had taken place under the Republic.
According to historian Julian Casanova , "the symbiosis of religion, fatherland and Caudillo" saw the Church assume great political responsibilities, "a hegemony and monopoly beyond its wildest dreams" and it played "a central role in policing the country's citizens".
The Law of Political Responsibility of February turned the Church into an extralegal body of investigation as parishes were granted policing powers equal to those of local government officials and leaders of the Falange.
Some official jobs required a "good behaviour" statement by a priest. According to historian Julian Casanova, "the reports that have survived reveal a clergy that was bitter because of the violent anti-clericalism and the unacceptable level of secularisation that Spanish society had reached during the republican years" and the law of made the priests investigators of peoples' ideological and political pasts.
The authorities encouraged denunciations in the workplace. For example, Barcelona's city hall obliged all government functionaries to "tell the proper authorities who the leftists are in your department and everything you know about their activities".
A law passed in institutionalised the purging of public offices. Only through silence could people associated with the Republic be relatively safe from imprisonment or unemployment.
After the death of Franco, the price of the peaceful transition to democracy would be silence and "the tacit agreement to forget the past",  which was given legal status by the Pact of forgetting.
Civil marriages that had taken place in the Republic were declared null and void unless they had been validated by the Church, along with divorces.
With the end of World War II, Spain suffered from the consequences of its isolation from the international economy.
Spain was excluded from the Marshall Plan ,  unlike other neutral countries in Europe. This situation ended in part when, in the light of Cold War tensions and of Spain's strategic location, the United States of America entered into a trade and military alliance with Franco.
Spain was then admitted to the United Nations in The first decade of Franco's rule following the end of the Civil War in saw continued repression and the killing of an undetermined number of political opponents.
Estimation is difficult and controversial, but the total number of people who were killed during this period probably lies somewhere between 15, and 50, By the start of the s Franco's state had become less violent, but during his entire rule, non-government trade unions and all political opponents across the political spectrum , from communist and anarchist organisations to liberal democrats and Catalan or Basque separatists, were either suppressed or tightly controlled with all means, up to and including violent police repression.
Franco's Spanish nationalism promoted a unitary national identity by repressing Spain's cultural diversity.
Bullfighting and flamenco  were promoted as national traditions while those traditions not considered "Spanish" were suppressed. Franco's view of Spanish tradition was somewhat artificial and arbitrary: while some regional traditions were suppressed, Flamenco , an Andalusian tradition, was considered part of a larger, national identity.
All cultural activities were subject to censorship, and many, such as the Sardana , the national dance of Catalonia , were plainly forbidden often in an erratic manner.
This cultural policy was relaxed over time, most notably during the late s and early s. Franco also used language politics in an attempt to establish national homogeneity.
He promoted the use of Castilian Spanish and suppressed other languages such as Catalan , Galician , and Basque.
The legal usage of languages other than Castilian was forbidden. All government, notarial, legal and commercial documents were to be drawn up exclusively in Castilian and any documents written in other languages were deemed null and void.
The usage of any other language was forbidden in schools, in advertising, and on road and shop signs.
For unofficial use, citizens continued to speak these languages. This was the situation throughout the s and to a lesser extent during the s, but after the non-Castilian Spanish languages were freely spoken and written, and they reached bookshops and stages, although they never received official status.
The Catholic Church was upheld as the established church of the Spanish State, and it regained many of the traditional privileges which it had lost under the Republic.
Civil servants had to be Catholic, and some official jobs even required a "good behavior" statement by a priest. Civil marriages which had taken place in Republican Spain were declared null and void unless they had been confirmed by the Catholic Church.
Divorce was forbidden, along with contraceptives , and abortion. Most country towns and rural areas were patrolled by pairs of Guardia Civil , a military police force for civilians, which functioned as Franco's chief means of social control.
Larger cities and capitals were mostly under the jurisdiction of the Policia Armada , or the grises "greys", due to the colour of their uniforms as they were called.
Plain-clothed secret police worked inside Spanish universities. Through this law, homosexuality and prostitution were made criminal offenses in Francoism professed a devotion to the traditional role of a woman in society, that is being a loving daughter and sister to her parents and brothers, being a faithful wife to her husband, and residing with her family.
Official propaganda confined the role of women to family care and motherhood. Immediately after the civil war most progressive laws passed by the Republic aimed at equality between the sexes were nullified.
Women could not become judges, or testify in a trial. They could not become university professors. Their affairs and economic lives had to be managed by their fathers and husbands.
Until the s women could not open a bank account without having it co-signed by her father or husband.
Spain attempted to retain control of its colonies throughout Franco's rule. Despite this, Franco was forced to make some concessions.
Only in , with the Green March , did Morocco take control of all of the former Spanish territories in the Sahara. In , under pressure from the United Nations,  Spain granted Equatorial Guinea its independence, and the following year it ceded Ifni to Morocco.
Under Franco, Spain also pursued a campaign to force a negotiation on the British overseas territory of Gibraltar , and closed its border with that territory in The border would not be fully reopened until The Civil War ravaged the Spanish economy.
For more than a decade after Franco's victory, the devastated economy recovered very slowly. Franco initially pursued a policy of autarky , cutting off almost all international trade.
The policy had devastating effects, and the economy stagnated. Only black marketeers could enjoy an evident affluence.
On the brink of bankruptcy, a combination of pressure from the United States and the IMF managed to convince the regime to adopt a free market economy.
Many of the old guard in charge of the economy were replaced by "technocrata", despite some initial opposition from Franco.
From the mids there was modest acceleration in economic activity after some minor reforms and a relaxation of controls.
But the growth proved too much for the economy, with shortages and inflation breaking out towards the end of the s.
When Franco replaced his ideological ministers with the apolitical technocrats, the regime implemented several development policies that included deep economic reforms.
After a recession, growth took off from , creating an economic boom that lasted until , and became known as the " Spanish miracle ".
Concurrent with the absence of social reforms, and the economic power shift, a tide of mass emigration commenced to other European countries, and to a lesser extent, to South America.
Emigration helped the regime in two ways. The country got rid of populations it would not have been able to keep in employment, and the emigrants supplied the country with much needed monetary remittances.
During the s, the wealthy classes of Francoist Spain experienced further increases in wealth, particularly those who remained politically faithful, while a burgeoning middle class became visible as the "economic miracle" progressed.
International firms established factories in Spain where salaries were low, company taxes very low, strikes forbidden and workers' health or state protections almost unheard of.
Furthermore, Spain was virtually a new mass market. Spain became the second-fastest growing economy in the world between and , just behind Japan.
By the time of Franco's death in , Spain still lagged behind most of Western Europe but the gap between its per capita GDP and that of the leading Western European countries had narrowed greatly, and the country had developed a large industrialised economy.
Franco decided to name a monarch to succeed his regency but the simmering tensions between the Carlists and the Alfonsoists continued.
In a bid to avoid a repeat of the Carlist Wars , he offered the throne to the Habsburg Archduke Otto von Habsburg ; by doing so he believed that he could eliminate the question of a Bourbon succession entirely since the Habsburg family which had ruled the Habsburg Spain during its golden age had an alternate claim to the Spanish throne before the War of the Spanish Succession.
Archduke Otto declined, stating that he would be seen as a German ruling Spain and could never forget his Austrian identity. This designation came as a surprise to the Carlist pretender to the throne, as well as to Juan Carlos's father, Don Juan, the Count of Barcelona , who had a superior claim to the throne, but whom Franco feared to be too liberal.
However, when King Carlos asked Franco if he could sit in on cabinet meetings, Franco would not permit him saying; "You would do things differently".
Due to the spread of democracy excluding the Soviet Block in Europe since the Second World War, Carlos could or would not have been a dictator in the way Franco had been.
By Franco had surrendered the function of prime minister Presidente del Gobierno , remaining only as head of state and commander in chief of the military.
As his final years progressed, tensions within the various factions of the Movimiento would consume Spanish political life, as varying groups jockeyed for position in an effort to win control of the country's future.
The assassination of prime minister Luis Carrero Blanco in the 20 December bombing by ETA eventually gave an edge to the liberalizing faction.
On 19 July , the aged Franco fell ill from various health problems, and Juan Carlos took over as acting head of state.
Franco soon recovered and on 2 September he resumed his duties as head of state. A year later he fell ill again, afflicted with further health problems, including a long battle with Parkinson's disease.
Franco's last public appearance was on 1 October when, despite his gaunt and frail appearance, he gave a speech to crowds from the balcony at the Royal Palace of El Pardo in Madrid.
On 30 October he fell into a coma and was put on life support. Franco's family agreed to disconnect the life-support machines.
According to his family, Franco did not want to be buried in the Valley, but in the Almudena Cathedral in Madrid.
Nonetheless, the family agreed to the interim Government's request to bury him in the Valley, and has stood by the decision.
This made Franco the only person interred in the Valley who did not die during the civil war. No Western European countries sent their leaders to attend Franco's funeral due to his tenure as dictator.
The following guests took part in his funeral:. It was revealed that both Pinochet and Banzer revered Franco and modelled their leadership style on the Spanish leader.
On 11 May , the Congress of Deputies approved, by —1 with abstentions, a motion driven by the Socialist Workers' Party ordering the Government to exhume Franco's remains.
The government gave Franco's family a day deadline to decide Franco's final resting place, or else a "dignified place" will be chosen by the government.
On 13 September , the Congress of Deputies voted —2, with abstentions, to approve the government's plan to remove Franco's body from the monument.
Franco's family opposed the exhumation, and attempted to prevent it by making appeals to the Ombudsman's Office.
The family expressed its wish that Franco's remains be reinterred with full military honors at the Almudena Cathedral in the centre of Madrid , the burial place he had requested before his death.
The exhumation also seems to have been an opinion divided by party line with the Socialist party strongly in favor of its removal as well as the removal of his statue there.
There seems to be no consensus on whether the statue should simply be moved or completely destroyed. In Spain and abroad, the legacy of Franco remains controversial.
The longevity of Franco's rule, his suppression of opposition, and the effective propaganda sustained through the years have made a detached evaluation difficult.
For almost 40 years, Spaniards, and particularly children at school, were told that Divine Providence had sent Franco to save Spain from chaos, atheism, and poverty.
A highly controversial figure within Spain, Franco is seen as a divisive leader. They emphasize his strong anti-communist and nationalist views, economic policies, and opposition to socialism as major factors in Spain's post-war economic success and later international integration.
Conversely, critics on the left have denounced him as a tyrant responsible for thousands of deaths in years-long political repression, and have called him complicit in atrocities committed by Axis forces during World War II due to his support of Axis governments.
When he died in , the major parties of the left and the right agreed to follow the "Pact of Forgetting. The agreement effectively lapsed after , the year the Association for the Recovery of Historical Memory was founded and the public debate started.
The Oxford Living Dictionary uses Franco's regime as an example of fascism. Franco served as a role model for several anti-communist dictators in South America.
Augusto Pinochet is known to have admired Franco. Spaniards who suffered under Franco's rule have sought to remove memorials of his regime.
Most government buildings and streets that were named after Franco during his rule have been reverted to their original names.
Owing to Franco's human-rights record, the Spanish government in banned all official public references to the Franco regime and began the removal of all statues, street names and memorials associated with the regime, with the last statue reportedly being removed in in the city of Santander.
Attempts to give the national anthem new lyrics have failed due to lack of consensus. In March , the Permanent Commission of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe unanimously adopted a resolution "firmly" condemning the "multiple and serious violations" of human rights committed in Spain under the Francoist regime from to At the time of her death in , Carmen Polo was receiving as a pension more than From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Spanish general and dictator. This article uses Spanish naming customs : the first or paternal family name is Franco and the second or maternal family name is Bahamonde.
His Excellency. Carmen Polo m. Main article: Spanish general election. Main article: Francoist Spain. Related topics. Further information: Spanish Empire.
See also: Economic history of Spain: Economy under Franco. Further information: Spanish transition to democracy.
Bon Voyage, Your Excellency! Biography portal Spain portal Politics portal. Payne explains; "Persistent rumors about Franco's alleged Jewish ancestry have no clear foundation, and Harry S.
Reig Tapia points out that Franco signed more decrees of execution than any other previous head of State in Spain.
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