Laura Christensen Darstellerin in Serien
Laura Elisabeth Christensen ist eine dänische Schauspielerin. Laura Elisabeth Christensen (* Januar in Østerbro, Kopenhagen) ist eine dänische Schauspielerin. Leben[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. Laura. Interview, Porträt, Filmografie, Bilder und Videos zum Star Laura Christensen | gull-racing.se gull-racing.se - Kaufen Sie Midsummer by Kristian Leth; Laura Christensen; Tuva Novotny; Jon Lange; Julie R. Olgaard; Nicolai Jandorf; Per Oscarsson günstig. Laura Christensen - Alle Bilder, Filme, TV Serien und Fakten finden Sie hier zum Star auf TV Spielfilm. Jetzt hier informieren!
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Laura Christensen Darstellerin in FilmenDu chronologische reihenfolge vor allem davonlaufen, aber nicht vor deiner ersten Liebe. Oster-Klassiker Christine Stahr. Artikel am Lager. Doch schnell merkt Lau…. Am Vorabend ihrer thought sausage party stream kinox.to come Tournee lernt er die geheim…. Lauren Daigle.
Ja, jeg var ung, men jeg har helt klart truffet det rigtige valg. Alle lagene forsvandt, og jeg stod tilbage med det inderste, som jeg hele tiden havde vidst, var der.
Han er omsorgsfuld og flabet. Han udfordrer mig og vil hele tiden udvide min horisont. Alle gange med et afslag.
Teater Alpha som det hedder i dag. Jeg vil gerne have nogle mere voksne roller og en anden type udfordringer. Bukser, Acne, ca. Blazer, Isabel Marant, 4.
Stiletter, Gianvito Rossi, ca. Spadestikkene til Teater Alpha var taget. Hun var ved at blive voksen. Jeg fandt ud af, at de bare er mennesker.
Da jeg var barn, var de jo mit fundament. Moren, Ulla, er lektor i folkesundhedsvidenskab, og faren, Peter, er lektor i historie.
Ikke fordi jeg skulle bruge det til noget, men fordi det interesserede mig. Min mors hjerte banker for de svage i samfundet.
For Laura er det vigtigste, at han er et ordentligt menneske. Vi lever i et samfund, hvor vi bliver bombarderet med informationer. Horoskoper arrow right.
Strikkeopskrifter arrow right. Podcast arrow right. Research and theory suggest that emotional goals are increasingly prioritized with age.
Related empirical work has shown that, compared with younger adults, older adults attend to and remember positive information more than negative information.
This age-related positivity effect has been eliminated in experiments that have explicitly demanded processing of both positive and negative information.
In the present study, we explored whether a reduction of the preference for positive information over negative information appears when the material being reviewed holds personal relevance for the individual.
Older participants whose health varied from poor to very good reviewed written material prior to making decisions about health related and non-health-related issues.
As predicted, older adults in relatively poor health compared with those in relatively good health showed less positivity in review of information while making health-related decisions.
In contrast, positivity emerged regardless of health status for decisions that were unrelated to health. Across decision contexts, those individuals who focused more on positive information than negative information reported better postdecisional mood and greater decision satisfaction.
Results are consistent with the theoretical argument that the age-related positivity effect reflects goal-directed cognitive processing and, furthermore, suggests that personal relevance and contextual factors determine whether positivity emerges.
Findings based on studies of daily life consistently associate older ages with relatively positive emotional experience, suggesting that older adults may regulate emotions more effectively than younger adults.
Findings from laboratory studies are equivocal, however, with mixed evidence for age-related improvements in use of emotion regulatory strategies.
In the current paper, we propose that findings may reflect a failure of laboratory-based experiments to capture the regulatory strategies that older people use in their everyday lives.
We argue that the advantages older people have are likely due to antecedent emotion regulation as opposed to response-focused strategies.
Understanding the regulatory approaches that older people actually use may inform developmental models of emotion regulation throughout adulthood as well as interventions for improving emotional experience across the life span.
Research on the ways older people use prescription medications Rx is a mainstay of the gerontological literature because use of Rx medications is common, and appropriate use is central to effective management of chronic disease.
But older adults are also major consumers of over-the-counter OTC medications, which can be equally significant for self-care.
Nearly half of older adults aged , for example, are regular users of an OTC product. Ensuring that consumers safely and effectively use OTC products is critical in order to minimize potential drug-drug interactions and unintentional misuse.
Yet we know surprisingly little about the ways older adults select OTC medications and decide when to start or stop use, how older people actually take these medications, or how involved clinicians and family members are in older adult OTC behavior.
Research in this area is critical for developing interventions to help ensure safe and appropriate OTC use. Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise.
Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems.
However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In 2 studies, we examined whether considering older adults' preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking.
In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking as measured with pedometers.
Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence.
In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a day period.
Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period.
Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles.
Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively- as opposed to negatively-framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults.
The articles appearing in this special section discuss the role that conscientiousness may play in healthy aging.
Growing evidence suggests that conscientious individuals live longer and healthier lives. However, the question remains whether this personality trait can be leveraged to improve long-term health outcomes.
We argue that even though it may be possible to design therapeutic interventions that increase conscientiousness, there may be more effective and efficient ways to improve population health.
We ask for evidence that a focus on conscientiousness improves behavior change efforts that target specific health-related behaviors or large-scale environmental modification.
Considerable evidence points to age-related improvements in emotional well-being with age.
In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the nature of these apparent shifts in experience, we examined age differences in a range of emotional states in the mornings and evenings in a sample of community-residing participants across 10 consecutive days.
Participants ranged in age from 22 to 93 years. Each participant completed a diary in the morning and again in the evening every day for the study period.
During each of the assessments, participants reported the degree to which they experienced emotions sampled from all four quadrants of the affective circumplex.
Overall, participants felt less positive and more negative in the evenings than in the mornings. As expected, older adults reported a relatively more positive emotional experience than younger adults at both times of day.
Importantly, however, age effects varied based on emotion type and time of day. Older adults reported experiencing more positive emotion than relatively younger adults across a range of different positive states although age differences emerged most consistently for low arousal positive states.
Age-related reductions in negative experience were observed only for reports of low arousal negative emotions. There were no age differences in anger, anxiety, or sadness.
For some emotions, age differences were stronger in the mornings e. Findings are discussed in the context of adulthood changes in motivation and emotional experience.
Telemarketing fraud is pervasive and older consumers are disproportionally targeted. Given laboratory research showing that forewarning can effectively counter influence appeals, we conducted a field experiment to test whether forewarning could protect people who had been victimized in the past.
A research assistant with prior experience as a telemarketer pitched a mock scam two or four weeks after participants were warned about the same scam or an entirely different scam.
Both warnings reduced unequivocal acceptance of the mock scam although outright refusals as opposed to expressions of skepticism were more frequent with the same scam warning than the different scam warning.
The same scam warning, but not the different scam warning, lost effectiveness over time. Findings demonstrate that social psychological research can inform effective protection strategies against telemarketing fraud.
Past research has documented age differences in the size and composition of social networks that suggest that networks grow smaller with age and include an increasingly greater proportion of well-known social partners.
According to socioemotional selectivity theory, such changes in social network composition serve an antecedent emotion regulatory function that supports an age-related increase in the priority that people place on emotional well-being.
The present study employed a longitudinal design with a sample that spanned the full adult age range to examine whether there is evidence of within-individual developmental change in social networks and whether the characteristics of relationships predict emotional experiences in daily life.
Using growth curve analyses, social networks were found to increase in size in young adulthood and then decline steadily throughout later life.
As postulated by socioemotional selectivity theory, reductions were observed primarily in the number of peripheral partners; the number of close partners was relatively stable over time.
In addition, cross-sectional analyses revealed that older adults reported that social network members elicited less negative emotion and more positive emotion.
The emotional tone of social networks, particularly when negative emotions were associated with network members, also predicted experienced emotion of participants.
Overall, findings were robust after taking into account demographic variables and physical health.
The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of socioemotional selectivity theory and related theoretical models.
Physical activity is associated with improved affective experience and enhanced cognitive processing. Potential age differences in the degree of benefit, however, are poorly understood because most studies examine either younger or older adults.
The present study examined age differences in cognitive performance and affective experience immediately following a single bout of moderate exercise.
Participants community members aged 19 to 93 were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions: a exercise 15 min of moderate intensity stationary cycling or b control 15 min completing ratings of neutral IAPS images.
Before and after the manipulation, participants completed tests of working memory and momentary affect experience was measured.
Results suggest that exercise is associated with increased levels of high-arousal positive affect HAP and decreased levels of low-arousal positive affect LAP relative to control condition.
Age moderated the effects of exercise on LAP, such that younger age was associated with a drop in reported LAP postexercise, whereas the effects of exercise on HAP were consistent across age.
Exercise also led to faster RTs on a working memory task than the control condition across age. Self-reported negative affect was unchanged.
Overall, findings suggest that exercise may hold important benefits for both affective experience and cognitive performance regardless of age.
The experience of positive affect is essential for healthy functioning and quality of life. Although there is a great deal of research on ways in which people regulate negative states, little is known about the regulation of positive states.
In the present study we examined age differences in the types of positive states people strive to experience and the correspondence between their desired and actual experiences.
Adults aged years of age described their ideal positive affect states. Then, using experience-sampling over a 7-day period, they reported their actual positive affect experiences.
Two types of positive affect were assessed: low-arousal calm, peaceful, relaxed and high-arousal excited, proud.
Young participants valued both types of positive affect equally. Older participants, however, showed increasingly clear preferences for low-arousal over high-arousal positive affect.
Older adults reached both types of positive affective goals more often than younger adults indicated by a smaller discrepancy between actual and ideal affect.
Moreover, meeting ideal levels of positive low-arousal affect though not positive high-arousal affect was associated with individuals' physical health, over and above levels of actual affect.
Findings underscore the importance of considering age differences in emotion-regulatory goals related to positive experience.
Traditional models of emotion-health interactions have emphasized the deleterious effects of negative emotions on physical health.
More recently, researchers have turned to potential benefits of positive emotions on physical health as well. Both lines of research, though, neglect the complex interplay between positive and negative emotions and how this interplay affects physical well-being.
Indeed, recent theoretical work suggests that a strategy of "taking the good with the bad" may benefit health outcomes.
In the present study, the authors assessed the impact of mixed emotional experiences on health outcomes in a year longitudinal experience-sampling study across the adult life span.
The authors found that not only were frequent experiences of mixed emotions co-occurrences of positive and negative emotions strongly associated with relatively good physical health, but that increases of mixed emotions over many years attenuated typical age-related health declines.
It has long been known that despite well-documented improvements in longevity for most Americans, alarming disparities persist among racial groups and between the well-educated and those with less education.
In this article we update estimates of the impact of race and education on past and present life expectancy, examine trends in disparities from through , and place observed disparities in the context of a rapidly aging society that is emerging at a time of optimism about the next revolution in longevity.
We found that in US adult men and women with fewer than twelve years of education had life expectancies not much better than those of all adults in the s and s.
When race and education are combined, the disparity is even more striking. In white US men and women with 16 years or more of schooling had life expectancies far greater than black Americans with fewer than 12 years of education These gaps have widened over time and have led to at least two "Americas," if not multiple others, in terms of life expectancy, demarcated by level of education and racial-group membership.
The message for policy makers is clear: implement educational enhancements at young, middle, and older ages for people of all races, to reduce the large gap in health and longevity that persists today.
The "positivity effect" refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing.
Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated Mather and Carstensen, scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature.
Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material.
When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets.
In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation.
At times, caregivers make life-and-death decisions for loved ones. Yet very little is known about the factors that make caregivers more or less accurate as surrogate decision makers for their loved ones.
Previous research suggests that in low stress situations, individuals with high attachment-related anxiety are attentive to their relationship partners' wishes and concerns, but get overwhelmed by stressful situations.
Individuals with high attachment-related avoidance are likely to avoid intimacy and stressful situations altogether. We hypothesized that both of these insecure attachment patterns limit surrogates' ability to process distressing information and should therefore be associated with lower accuracy in the stressful task of predicting their loved ones' end-of-life health care wishes.
Older patients visiting a medical clinic stated their preferences toward end-of-life health care in different health contexts, and surrogate decision makers independently predicted those preferences.
For comparison purposes, surrogates also predicted patients' perceptions of everyday living conditions so that surrogates' accuracy of their loved ones' perceptions in nonstressful situations could be assessed.
Surrogates high on either type of insecure attachment dimension were less accurate in predicting their loved ones' end-of-life health care wishes.
It is interesting to note that even though surrogates' attachment-related anxiety was associated with lower accuracy of end-of-life health care wishes of their loved ones, it was associated with higher accuracy in the nonstressful task of predicting their loved ones' everyday living conditions.
Attachment orientation plays an important role in accuracy about loved ones' end-of-life health care wishes. Interventions may target emotion regulation strategies associated with insecure attachment orientations.
Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood.
Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later.
Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions.
These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables.
Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period.
Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. Many people fail to save what they need to for retirement Munnell, Webb, and Golub-Sass Research on excessive discounting of the future suggests that removing the lure of immediate rewards by pre-committing to decisions, or elaborating the value of future rewards can both make decisions more future-oriented.
In this article, we explore a third and complementary route, one that deals not with present and future rewards, but with present and future selves.
In line with thinkers who have suggested that people may fail, through a lack of belief or imagination, to identify with their future selves Parfit ; Schelling , we propose that allowing people to interact with age-progressed renderings of themselves will cause them to allocate more resources toward the future.
In four studies, participants interacted with realistic computer renderings of their future selves using immersive virtual reality hardware and interactive decision aids.
In all cases, those who interacted with virtual future selves exhibited an increased tendency to accept later monetary rewards over immediate ones.
Intertemporal choices are a ubiquitous class of decisions that involve selecting between outcomes available at different times in the future.
We investigated the neural systems supporting intertemporal decisions in healthy younger and older adults. Using functional neuroimaging, we find that aging is associated with a shift in the brain areas that respond to delayed rewards.
Although we replicate findings that brain regions associated with the mesolimbic dopamine system respond preferentially to immediate rewards, we find a separate region in the ventral striatum with very modest time dependence in older adults.
Activation in this striatal region was relatively insensitive to delay in older but not younger adults. Since the dopamine system is believed to support associative learning about future rewards over time, our observed transfer of function may be due to greater experience with delayed rewards as people age.
Identifying differences in the neural systems underlying these decisions may contribute to a more comprehensive model of age-related change in intertemporal choice.
In everyday life, people frequently make decisions based on tacit or explicit forecasts about the emotional consequences associated with the possible choices.
We investigated age differences in such forecasts and their accuracy by surveying voters about their expected and, subsequently, their actual emotional responses to the US presidential election.
A sample of Democratic and Republican voters aged 20 to 80 years participated in a web-based study; could be re-contacted two days after the election.
Older adults forecasted lower increases in high-arousal emotions e. Age differences in actual responses to the election were consistent with forecasts, albeit less pervasive.
Additionally, among supporters of the winning candidate, but not among supporters of the losing candidate, forecasting accuracy was enhanced with age, suggesting a positivity effect in affective forecasting.
These results add to emerging findings about the role of valence and arousal in emotional ageing and demonstrate age differences in affective forecasting about a real-world event with an emotionally charged outcome.
Contrasting cognitive and physical decline, research in emotional aging suggests that most older adults enjoy high levels of affective well-being and emotional stability into their 70s and 80s.
We investigate the contributions of age-related changes in emotional motivation and competence to positive affect trajectories.
We give an overview on the recent literature on emotional processing and emotional regulation, combining evidence from correlational and experimental, as well as behavioral and neuroscience studies.
In particular, we focus on emotion-cognition interactions, including the positivity effect. Looking forward, we argue that efforts to link levels of emotional functioning with long-term outcomes, combining space- and time-sensitive measures of brain function, and developing interventions to improve life quality for older adults may further refine life-span theories and open promising avenues of empirical investigation.
Research on aging has indicated that whereas deliberative cognitive processes decline with age, emotional processes are relatively spared.
To examine the implications of these divergent trajectories in the context of health care choices, we investigated whether instructional manipulations emphasizing a focus on feelings or details would have differential effects on decision quality among younger and older adults.
We presented 60 younger and 60 older adults with health care choices that required them to hold in mind and consider multiple pieces of information.
Instructional manipulations in the emotion-focus condition asked participants to focus on their emotional reactions to the options, report their feelings about the options, and then make a choice.
In the information-focus condition, participants were instructed to focus on the specific attributes, report the details about the options, and then make a choice.
In a control condition, no directives were given. Manipulation checks indicated that the instructions were successful in eliciting different modes of processing.
Decision quality data indicate that younger adults performed better in the information-focus than in the control condition whereas older adults performed better in the emotion-focus and control conditions than in the information-focus condition.
Findings support and extend extant theorizing on aging and decision making as well as suggest that interventions to improve decision-making quality should take the age of the decision maker into account.
In this study, we investigated potential awareness of the phenomenon by asking older people to recollect material from the perspective of a young person.
Young and older participants listened to stories about and year-old main characters and then were asked to retell the stories from the perspective of the main characters.
Older adults used relatively more positive than negative words when retelling from the perspective of a versus year-old. Young adults, however, used comparable numbers of positive and negative words regardless of perspective.
These findings contribute to a growing literature that points to developmental gains in the emotion domain. The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging.
In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity and those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being.
In recent years, this supposed "paradox" of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation.
Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, well-being, and emotional distress across adulthood. Carstensen Emotion, [Jun], Vol 8, The first author of the article was listed as being affiliated with both the National Institute on Aging and the Department of Psychology, Stanford University.
Nielsen would like to clarify that the research for this article was conducted while she was a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University; her current affiliation is only with the National Institute on Aging.
The copyright notice should also have been listed as "In the Public Domain. Dynamic changes in affect were measured along valence and arousal dimensions, with probes during both anticipatory and consummatory task phases.
Older and younger adults displayed distinct patterns of affect dynamics. Younger adults reported increased negative arousal during loss anticipation and positive arousal during gain anticipation.
In contrast, older adults reported increased positive arousal during gain anticipation but showed no increase in negative arousal on trials involving loss anticipation.
Additionally, younger adults reported large increases in valence after avoiding an anticipated loss, but older adults did not.
Younger, but not older, adults exhibited forecasting errors on the arousal dimension, underestimating increases in arousal during anticipation of gains and losses and overestimating increases in arousal in response to gain outcomes.
Overall, the findings are consistent with a growing literature suggesting that older people experience less negative emotion than their younger counterparts and further suggest that they may better predict dynamic changes in affect.
A growing body of research suggests that the ability to regulate emotion remains stable or improves across the adult life span.
Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that this pattern of findings reflects the prioritization of emotional goals.
Given that goal-directed behavior requires attentional control, the present study was designed to investigate age differences in selective attention to emotional lexical stimuli under conditions of emotional interference.
Both neural and behavioral measures were obtained during an experiment in which participants completed a flanker task that required them to make categorical judgments about emotional and nonemotional stimuli.
Older adults showed interference in both the behavioral and neural measures on control trials but not on emotion trials. Although older adults typically show relatively high levels of interference and reduced cognitive control during nonemotional tasks, they appear to be able to successfully reduce interference during emotional tasks.
Older adults' relatively better memory for positive over negative material positivity effect has been widely observed in Western samples.
This study examined whether a relative preference for positive over negative material is also observed in older Koreans.
Younger and older Korean participants viewed images from the International Affective Picture System IAPS , were tested for recall and recognition of the images, and rated the images for valence.
Cultural differences in the valence ratings of images emerged. Once considered, the relative preference for positive over negative material in memory observed in older Koreans was indistinguishable from that observed previously in older Americans.
Older adults report less distress in response to interpersonal conflicts than do younger adults, yet few researchers have examined factors that may contribute to these age differences.
Emotion regulation is partially determined by the initial cognitive and emotional reactions that events elicit.
At 4 points during each scenario, the tape paused and participants engaged in a talk-aloud procedure and rated their level of anger and sadness.
Findings reveal that older adults reported less anger but equal levels of sadness compared to younger adults, and their comments were judged by coders as less negative.
Older adults made fewer appraisals about the people speaking on the tape and expressed less interest in learning more about their motives.
Together, findings are consistent with age-related increases in processes that promote disengagement from offending situations.
Affective forecasting, experienced affect, and recalled affect were compared in younger and older adults during a task in which participants worked to win and avoid losing small monetary sums.
The anterior insula has been implicated in both the experience and the anticipation of negative outcomes. Although individual differences in insular sensitivity have been associated with self-report measures of chronic anxiety, previous research has not examined whether individual differences in insular sensitivity predict learning to avoid aversive stimuli.
In the present study, insular sensitivity was assessed as participants anticipated monetary losses while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.
We found that insular responsiveness to anticipated losses predicted participants' ability to learn to avoid losses but not to approach gains in a behavioral test several months later.
These findings suggest that in addition to correlating with self-reported anxiety, heightened insular sensitivity may promote learning to avoid loss.
Using computer-based decision scenarios, participants reviewed positive, negative, or neutral choice criteria before choosing.
Older adults who chose for themselves reviewed a greater proportion of positive choice criteria, recalled their choices more positively, and showed more positive emotional responses than did younger adults.
Comparable results were found when participants chose for another person of similar age. Older adults who were asked to choose for a young person, however, showed a reduced focus on positive information; in addition, their emotional experience during the review process was less positive.
Younger adults' performance was not influenced by the decision target. The experience of mixed emotions increases with age. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests that mixed emotions are associated with shifting time horizons.
Theoretically, perceived constraints on future time increase appreciation for life, which, in turn, elicits positive emotions such as happiness.
Yet, the very same temporal constraints heighten awareness that these positive experiences come to an end, thus yielding mixed emotional states.
In 2 studies, the authors examined the link between the awareness of anticipated endings and mixed emotional experience. In Study 1, participants repeatedly imagined being in a meaningful location.
Participants in the experimental condition imagined being in the meaningful location for the final time. Only participants who imagined "last times" at meaningful locations experienced more mixed emotions.
In Study 2, college seniors reported their emotions on graduation day. Mixed emotions were higher when participants were reminded of the ending that they were experiencing.
Findings suggest that poignancy is an emotional experience associated with meaningful endings. Although global declines in structure have been documented in the aging human brain, little is known about the functional integrity of the striatum and prefrontal cortex in older adults during incentive processing.
We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether younger and older adults differed in both self-reported and neural responsiveness to anticipated monetary gains and losses.
The present study provides evidence for intact striatal and insular activation during gain anticipation with age, but shows a relative reduction in activation during loss anticipation.
These findings suggest that there is an asymmetry in the processing of gains and losses in older adults that may have implications for decision-making.
According to socioemotional selectivity theory, age-related constraints on time horizons are associated with motivational changes that increasingly favor goals related to emotional well-being.
Such changes have implications for emotionally taxing tasks such as making decisions, especially when decisions require consideration of unpleasant information.
This study examined age differences in information acquisition and recall in the health care realm. Using computer-based decision scenarios, 60 older and 60 young adults reviewed choice criteria that contained positive, negative, and neutral information about different physicians and health care plans.
As predicted, older adults reviewed and recalled a greater proportion of positive than of negative information compared with young adults.
Age differences were eliminated when motivational manipulations elicited information-gathering goals or when time perspective was controlled statistically.
Implications for improving decision strategies in older adults are discussed. The subjective sense of future time plays an essential role in human motivation.
Gradually, time left becomes a better predictor than chronological age for a range of cognitive, emotional, and motivational variables.
Socioemotional selectivity theory maintains that constraints on time horizons shift motivational priorities in such a way that the regulation of emotional states becomes more important than other types of goals.
This motivational shift occurs with age but also appears in other contexts for example, geographical relocations, illnesses, and war that limit subjective future time.
Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information.
Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material.
This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired.
Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern.
As people get older, they experience fewer negative emotions. Strategic processes in older adults' emotional attention and memory might play a role in this variation with age.
Older adults show more emotionally gratifying memory distortion for past choices and autobiographical information than younger adults do.
In addition, when shown stimuli that vary in affective valence, positive items account for a larger proportion of older adults' subsequent memories than those of younger adults.
This positivity effect in older adults' memories seems to be due to their greater focus on emotion regulation and to be implemented by cognitive control mechanisms that enhance positive and diminish negative information.
These findings suggest that both cognitive abilities and motivation contribute to older adults' improved emotion regulation.
After providing an introductory overview of socioemotional selectivity theory, we review empirical evidence for its basic postulates and consider the implications of the predicted cognitive and behavioral changes for physical health.
The main assertion of socioemotional selectivity theory is that when boundaries on time are perceived, present-oriented goals related to emotional meaning are prioritized over future-oriented goals aimed at acquiring information and expanding horizons.
Such motivational changes, which are strongly correlated with chronological age, systematically influence social preferences, social network composition, emotion regulation, and cognitive processing.
On the one hand, there is considerable reason to believe that such changes are good for well-being and social adjustment. On the other hand, the very same motivational changes may limit health-related information-seeking and influence attention, memory, and decision-making such that positive material is favored over negative information.
Grounding our arguments in socioemotional selectivity theory, we consider possible ways to tailor contexts such that disadvantages are avoided.
As they age, adults experience less negative emotion, come to pay less attention to negative than to positive emotional stimuli, and become less likely to remember negative than positive emotional materials.
This profile of findings suggests that, with age, the amygdala may show decreased reactivity to negative information while maintaining or increasing its reactivity to positive information.
We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess whether amygdala activation in response to positive and negative emotional pictures changes with age.
Both older and younger adults showed greater activation in the amygdala for emotional than for neutral pictures; however, for older adults, seeing positive pictures led to greater amygdala activation than seeing negative pictures, whereas this was not the case for younger adults.
This study reveals that older adults have a positivity effect in long-term autobiographical memory and that a positivity bias can be induced in younger adults by a heightened motivation to regulate current emotional well-being.
Three hundred nuns, ages 47 to years, recalled personal information originally reported 14 years earlier. They did so under experimental conditions that repeatedly primed them to focus on their current emotional states or on their memory accuracy, or that provided no instructional focus control condition.
Both older control participants and participants who were focused on emotional states showed a tendency to remember the past more positively than they originally reported in In contrast, both younger control participants and participants who were focused on accuracy tended to remember the past more negatively than originally reported.
Socioemotional selectivity theory contends that when people perceive time as limited, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals.
Although empirical support for the theory has been found in several studies, 2 alternative explanations for the pattern of findings remain: a emotional goals are pursued by default because nonemotional goals are blocked, and b emotional goals are pursued in search of emotional support rather than emotional meaning.
This study tested these alternatives by examining social goals in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time. Findings reveal distinct motivational patterns, as reflected in social preferences and self-reported social goals, in response to the 2 types of constraints.
We examined age differences in attention to and memory for faces expressing sadness, anger, and happiness. Participants saw a pair of faces, one emotional and one neutral, and then a dot probe that appeared in the location of one of the faces.
In two experiments, older adults responded faster to the dot if it was presented on the same side as a neutral face than if it was presented on the same side as a negative face.
Younger adults did not exhibit this attentional bias. Interactions of age and valence were also found for memory for the faces, with older adults remembering positive better than negative faces.
These findings reveal that in their initial attention, older adults avoid negative information.
This attentional bias is consistent with older adults' generally better emotional well-being and their tendency to remember negative less well than positive information.
In the present article, the authors examined age differences in the emotional experiences involved in talking about past events. In Study 1, adults in an experience-sampling study reported whether they were engaged in mutual reminiscing and their concurrent experience of positive and negative emotion.
Their experiences of positive and negative emotion during mutual reminiscing were compared with emotional experience during other social activities.
Age was associated with increasing positive emotion during mutual reminiscing. In this case, age was associated with improved emotional experiences but only during reminiscing about positive experiences.
Findings are discussed in terms of socioemotional selectivity theory and the literature on reminiscence and life review.
Socioemotional selectivity theory holds that people of different ages prioritize different types of goals.
As people age and increasingly perceive time as finite, they attach greater importance to goals that are emotionally meaningful.
Because the goals that people pursue so centrally influence cognition, the authors hypothesize that persuasive messages, specifically advertisements, would be preferred and better remembered by older adults when they promise to help realize emotionally meaningful goals, whereas younger adults would not show this bias.
The authors also predict that modifying time perspective would reduce age differences. Findings provide qualified support for each of these predictions.
Two studies examined age differences in recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral stimuli. In Study 1, younger, middle-aged, and older adults were shown images on a computer screen and, after a distraction task, were asked first to recall as many as they could and then to identify previously shown images from a set of old and new ones.
The relative number of negative images compared with positive and neutral images recalled decreased with each successively older age group.
Recognition memory showed a similar decrease with age in the relative memory advantage for negative pictures. In Study 2, the largest age differences in recall and recognition accuracy were also for the negative images.
Findings are consistent with socioemotional selectivity theory, which posits greater investment in emotion regulation with age. Ample empirical evidence shows that basic cognitive processes integral to learning and memory suffer with age.
Explanations for age-related loss typically cite the absence of evolutionary selection pressures during the postreproductive years, which consequently failed to optimize functioning during old age.
In this paper, we suggest that evolutionary pressures did operate at older ages and that an evolutionary account is entirely consistent with the pattern of findings currently available in the psychological literature on aging.
Cognitive loss is limited primarily to new learning, yet integrated world knowledge increases with age. In addition, socioemotional regulation improves with age, which is associated with increased investment in emotionally meaningful others most notably kin.
In this chapter, we argue that this profile of late-life characteristics contributes to the reproductive success of kin. We consider how the uniquely human ability to monitor place in the life cycle and the consequent motivational shifts that occur when boundaries in time are perceived contribute to the adaptive value of long life.
Finally, we suggest that joint consideration of evolutionary theory and life-span psychology can lead to fruitful advances in the understanding of human aging.
Research has shown that age and ethnicity are associated with individuals' motivations for emotional regulation and social interaction.
The authors proposed that these age and ethnicity-related motives would be reflected in storytelling. Women representing 2 age and 2 ethnic groups young adulthood, oldage, African American, European American told stories to young girls.
Stories were coded for emotional, relational, and socialization focus. They predicted that older adults would selectively emphasize positive over negative emotions and would direct more utterances toward their interaction with their listener.